Web browsers receive HTML documents from a web server or from local storage and render the documents into multimedia web pages. HTML describes the structure of a web page semantically and originally included cues for the appearance of the document.
Hyper Text: HyperText simply means “Text within Text.” A text has a link within it, is a hypertext. Whenever you click on a link which brings you to a new webpage, you have clicked on a hypertext. HyperText is a way to link two or more web pages (HTML documents) with each other.
Markup language: A markup language is a computer language that is used to apply layout and formatting conventions to a text document. Markup language makes text more interactive and dynamic. It can turn text into images, tables, links, etc.
Web Page: A web page is a document which is commonly written in HTML and translated by a web browser. A web page can be identified by entering an URL. A Web page can be of the static or dynamic type. With the help of HTML only, we can create static web pages.
History of HTML
HTML was created by Sir Tim Berners-Lee in late 1991 but was not released officially, which was published in 1995 as HTML 2.0. HTML 4.01 was published in late 1999 and was a major version of HTMLHTML was originally developed by a man named Tim Berners-Lee while at CERN. While working at CERN, he became frustrated at having to log on to different computers to find different information and thought that there must be a better way. He figured that there must be a way to hop from one set of information to another that’s on different computers. This concept of a hyper-text system (connected with the networking technology and protocols needed to pass information between computers) would go on to form the basis for the fundamental language of the world wide web — HTML.
The first ever version of HTML was HTML 1.0. This original HTML was a lot different than the HTML used today, it was far more limiting. The internet was not yet popularized, and few people were involved in web development. But for those that were involved in web development, they could not do much with HTML except get some simple text up on the web (the original HTML consisted of only 22 tags). This was only the beginning.
Since the early days of the World Wide Web, there have been many versions of HTML.
- 1989 Tim Berners-Lee invented www
- 1991 Tim Berners-Lee invented HTML
- 1993 Dave Raggett drafted HTML+
- 1995 HTML Working Group defined HTML 2.0
- 1997 W3C Recommendation: HTML 3.2
- 1999 W3C Recommendation: HTML 4.01
- 2000 W3C Recommendation: XHTML 1.0
- 2008 WHATWG HTML5 First Public Draft
- 2012 WHATWG HTML5 Living Standard
- 2014 W3C Recommendation: HTML5
- 2016 W3C Candidate Recommendation: HTML 5.1
- 2017 W3C Recommendation: HTML5.1 2nd Edition
- 2017 W3C Recommendation: HTML5.2
Features of HTML
- It is a very easy and simple language. It can be easily understood and modified.
- This is very easy to make an effective presentation with HTML because it has a lot of formatting tags.
- It is a markup language, so it provides a flexible way to design web pages along with the text.
- HTML facilitates programmers to add a link on the web pages (by html anchor tag), so it enhances the interest of browsing of the user.
- It is platform-independent because it can be displayed on any platform like Windows, Linux, and Macintosh, etc.
- It facilitates the programmer to add Graphics, Videos, and Sound to the web pages which makes it more attractive and interactive.
- HTML is a case-insensitive language, which means we can use tags either in lower-case or upper-case.